Exploring The Teacher Agency Regarding to The Implementation of Flipped-Differentiated Learning in The Context of EFL Learners

Main Article Content

Kristoforus Gustian
Istanti Hermagustiana
Dyah Sunggingwati


The purpose of this study is to present a qualitative case study that investigates teacher agency in the context of implementing Flipped-Differentiated Learning (FDL) for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The study included two participants who used the FDL approach, and their experiences were investigated to learn how their agency changed during the process. Prior to implementation, both teachers were concerned about implementing this novel approach. The findings of the study show that, despite early limits, teachers were able to acquire a sense of agency when they applied FDL in their EFL classrooms. Throughout the study, they demonstrated increasing confidence in their teaching judgments and involvement with students. This newfound agency allowed teachers to adjust their teaching approaches to better suit their students' different needs and learning styles, resulting in improved learning outcomes. However, the study also shows a gap in existing evidence about the relationship between teacher agency and FDL implementation. While the research gives useful insights into the transformative potential of FDL on teacher agency, more research is needed to establish a thorough grasp of this correlation. Future research should focus on filling this vacuum and delving deeper into the mechanisms through which FDL influences teacher agency, ultimately contributing to the refinement and optimization of flipped-differentiated learning practices in EFL contexts.

Article Details

How to Cite
Gustian, K., Hermagustiana, I., & Sunggingwati, D. (2023). Exploring The Teacher Agency Regarding to The Implementation of Flipped-Differentiated Learning in The Context of EFL Learners. Journal on Education, 6(1), 8181-8199. https://doi.org/10.31004/joe.v6i1.4239


Achinstein, B., & Ogawa, R. T. (2006). (In)Fidelity: What the resistance of new teachers reveals about professional principles and prescriptive educational policies. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 30–63.
Adnan, M (2017). “Perceptions of senior-year ELT students for flipped classroom: a materials development course.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30:3-4, 204-222, DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2017.1301958
adolescence, Applied Developmental Science, 7 (3), 119–128.
Ahearn, L. M. (2001). Language and agency. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 109-137. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.30.1.109
Alavinia, P. & Viyani, A. (2018). “Role of Differentiated Listening Instruction via Attending to Learners‟ Multiple Intelligences in Enhancing Listening Performance of Iranian Learners.” International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(3). 12-21.
Anspal, T., Leijen, Ä. and Löfström, E. (2019) Tensions and the teacher’s role in student
Arifani, Y. (2019), "The application of small group and individual flipped model with WhatsApp to foster EFL learners’ cohesive writing skill." Library Hi Tech News, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 10-12. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHTN-12-2018-0075
base of teaching, International Journal of Educational Research, 35 (5), 441–461.
Beijaard, D., Meijer, P. C. and Verloop, N. (2004) Reconsidering research on teachers’
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day (pp. 120-190). Washington DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
Biesta GJJ & Tedder M (2007) Agency and Learning in the lifecourse: Towards an ecological perspective. Studies in the Education of Adults, 39 (2), pp. 132-149. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/niace/stea/2007/00000039/00000002/art00002
Biesta, G. (2009) Good education in an age of measurement: on the need to reconnect Accountability, 21 (1), 33–46.
Bondie, R. S., Dahnke, C., & Zusho, A. (2019). “How does changing “one-size-fits-all” to differentiated instruction affect teaching?” Review of Research in Education, 43(1), 336-362.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), p.77-101. Retrieved from http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11735/2/thematic_analysis_revised_- _final.pdf
Bronk, K. C. (2014) Purpose in Life: A Critical Component of Optimal Youth
Campano, C., Exposito, P.L, Gonzales-Aguilera, L., Blanco a, A., Carles Negro, C. (2020).”In-depth characterization of the aggregation state of cellulose nanocrystals through analysis of transmission electron microscopy images”. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117271
Clandinin, D. and Connelly, F. M. (2000) Narrative Inquiry (San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass).
Cochran-Smith, M. (2004) The Problem of Teacher Education, Journal of Teacher
Constructivist Psychology, 26 (2), 104–114.
Craig, C. J. (2007) Story constellations: a narrative approach to contextualizing teachers’
Curriculum Policy and Research Series (New York, NY, Nichols Publishing
Damon, W., Menon, J. and Bronk, K. C. (2003) The development of purpose during
Darling-Hammond, L., Hammerness, K., Grossman, P., Rust, F. and Shulman, L. (2005)
Denzin, N.K., Lincoln, Y.S.(1998). “Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry”: SAGE Publications, 9 Mar 1998
Development (Dordrecht, Springer).
Devine, N& Irwin, R. (2005). “Autonomy, Agency and Education: He Tangata, He Tangata, He Tangata, Educational Philosophy and Theory, v37 n3 p317-331 Jun 2005
Dover, T.L, Kaiser, C.R., Major, B. (2016). “Diversity Initiatives and White Americans’ Perceptions of Racial Victimhood”.Sage Journals. Volume 48, Issue 6. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211030391
Education, 55 (4), 295–299.
Edwards,S.D.,(2011). “ Is there a distinctive care ethics?” View all authors and affiliations. Volume 18, Issue 2. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733010389431
Elbaz, F. (1983) Teacher Thinking. A Study of Practical Knowledge. Croom Helm
Emirbayer, M. & Mische, A. (1998). ‘What is agency?’ The American Journal of Sociology, 103, 962- 1023.
Eteläpelto, A., Vähäsantanen, K. and Hökkä, P. (2015). “How do novice teachers in finland perceive their professional agency?” Teachers and Teaching, 21 (6), 660–680.
Etemadfar, P, Soozandehfar, S. M. A. & Namaziandost, E. (2020). “An account of EFL learners’ listening comprehension and critical thinking in the flipped classroom model.” Cogent Education, 7:1, 1835150, DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2020.1835150
Fahmi,R., Friatin, L.Y & Irianti,L (2020). “The Use Of Flipped Classroom Model in Reading Comprehension.” Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literacy, ISSN 2598-8530, February, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2020. https://jurnal.unigal.ac.id/index.php/jall/index
Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating Rigor Using Thematic Analysis: A Hybrid Approach of Inductive and Deductive Coding and Theme Development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500107
Frankl, V. E. (1985) Man’s Search for Meaning (New York, NY, Simon and Schuster).
Gardner, H. and Shulman, L. S. (2005). “The professions in America today: crucial but Fragile, Daedalus, 134 (3), 13–18.
Güvenç, G. (2021). “The impact of virtual differentiated instruction practices on student and teacher perceptions in English language teaching,” Int. J. Curric. Instr., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 3146–3164, 2021
Güvenç,G (2018). “The flipped classroom approach in teaching writing: An action research.” International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research, Online, http://dergipark.gov.tr/ijsser Volume: 4(3), 2018
Hashemifardnia, A.,Namaziandost, E & Shafiee, S (2018). “The Effect of Implementing Flipped Classrooms on Iranian Junior High School Students' Reading Comprehension.” Theory and Practice in Language Studies, ISSN 1799-2591Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 665-673, June 2018 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0806.17
Heacox, D. (2018). Making differentiation a habit: How to ensure success in academically diverse classrooms. Free Spirit Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20254
Hitlin, S. & Elder, G.H.Jr.(2007). “Time, Self, and the Curiously Abstract Concept of Agency”. Volume 25, Issue 2. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2007.00303.x
Holloway, I., & Todres, L. (2003). The status of method: Flexibility, consistency and coherence. Qualitative Research, 3(3), 345–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794103033004
Hsieh, J.S.C., Wu,W-C.V., & Marek, M.W. (2017). “Using the flipped classroom to enhance EFL learning,” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30:1-2, 1-21, DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2015.1111910, https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2019.103039
Idrus, F., Asri, N. A. Z., and Baharom, N. N., (2021) “Has differentiated instruction gone ‘awry’ in online teaching and learning?,” J. Lang. Teach. Res., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 501–510, 2021, doi: 10.17507/jltr.1203.21.
Jenset, I. S., Klette, K. and Hammerness, K. (2018) Grounding teacher education in
Journal of Educational Research, 63 (5), 679−695.
knowledge of school reform, Teaching and Teacher Education, 23 (2), 173–188.
Leijen, Ä. and Kullasepp, K. (2013) All roads lead to rome: developmental trajectories of
LePage, K. Hammerness and H. Duffy (Eds) Preparing Teachers for a Changing
Li, S & Suwanthep, J (2017). “Integration of Flipped Classroom Model for EFL Speaking.” International Journal of Learning and Teaching, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2017
Loera, L. V. (2010). “The ecology of language learning: Practice to theory, theory to practice”. December 2010Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 3:2-6. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.005. License CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Magableh,I.S and Abdullah,A (2022). “Differentiated instruction effectiveness on the secondary stage students’ reading comprehension proficiency level in Jordan.” International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE),Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2022, pp. 459~466
Malacapay, M. C., (2019). “Differentiated instruction in relation to pupils’ learning style,” Int. J. Instr., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 625–638, 2019, doi: 10.29333/iji.2019.12440a.
Molla,T. & Nolan,A. (2020). “Teacher agency and professional practice”. Teacher & Teaching: Taylor & Francis Online. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2020.1740196
Namaziandost, E., Neisi, L., Momtaz, S (2019). “The Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom Model on Listening Comprehension Among Iranian Upper-intermediate EFL Learners.” Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, Volume 6, Issue 4, 2019, pp. 129-139. Available online at www.jallr.com. Issn:2376-760X
Ortega, D. P., Cabrera, J. M. and Benalcázar, J. V.,(2018). “Differentiating instruction in the language learning classroom: Theoretical considerations and practical applications,” J. Lang. Teach. Res., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1220–1228, 2018, doi: 10.17507/jltr.0906.11.
Paris, C. & Lung, P. (2008). “Agency and Child-Centered Practices in Novice Teachers: Autonomy, Efficacy, Intentionality, and Reflectivity”. Journal of Early ChildhoodTeacher Education, 29:3, 253-268, DOI: 10.1080/10901020802275302
practice around the world: an examination of teacher education coursework in
Priestley, M., Biesta, G. J. J. and Robinson, S. (2015). “Teacher Agency: An Ecological Approach”. (London, Bloomsbury Academic).
professional identity, Teaching and Teacher Education, 20 (2), 107–128.
Said, M., & Ehsan, N. (2019). “The Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Students’ Language Attitude and Critical Thinking in an ESL Context.” (Doctoral dissertation, University of Sheffield).
Saleh, A.H.A.E (2021). “The Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in Improving Bahraini EFL Secondary School Students in Reading Comprehension Skills”. Journal of Research and Innovation in Language. ISSN (Online): 2685-3906, ISSN (Print): 2685-0818
Sen, A. (1985). “Well being, agency and freedom: The dewey lectures.” The Journal of Philosophy, 82, 169-221.
Simons, P. R. J. and Ruijters, M. C. (2014) The real professional is a learning professional. S. Billett, C. Harteis and H. Gruber (Eds) International Handbook of Research in Professional and Practice-based Learning (Dordrecht, Springer), 955–985.
student teachers’ professional and personal identity development, Journal of
Sudarmaji, I., Anwar, A. A. A & Mulyana, A (2021). “Developing Students’ Speaking Skills through Flipped Classroom Model on High School Students.” Journal of English Education and Teaching (JEET), e-ISSN: 2622-5867 p-ISSN: 2685-743x Volume 5 number 2, June 2021, Page 188-200
Suranakkharin, T.(2017). “Using the Flipped Model to Foster Thai Learners’ Second Language Collocation Knowledge.” The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies – Vol 23(3): 1 – 20 http://doi.org/10.17576/3L-2017-2303-01
teacher education programs in Finland, Norway, and the United States, Journal of
Teacher Education, 69 (2), 184–197.
teacher identity development in primary and subject teacher curricula, Scandinavian
The design of teacher education programs. In L. Darling-Hammond, J. Bransford, P.
the world. Journal of Education for Teaching, 42 (5), 526–531.
Tirri, K., Moran, S. and Mariano, J. M. (2016) Education for purposeful teaching around
Tomlinson,C.A. and Imbeau, M.B. (2010). “Leading and managing a differentiated instruction.”Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2010.
Tucker,B., (2012). “The Flipped Classroom. Online instruction at home frees class time for learning.” Education Next / W I N T E R 2 0 1 2, educationnext.org
Turnbull, M. (2005). “Student teacher professional agency in the practicum”. July 2005Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 33(2):195-208,DOI:10.1080/13598660500122116
Verloop, N., Van Driel, J. and Meijer, P. (2001) Teacher knowledge and the knowledge
with the question of purpose in education, Educational Assessment, Evaluation and
World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do(San Francisco, CA, JosseyBass), 390–441.